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APOCALYX 3D Engine

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Index

  1. Brief Description of the Game
  2. Example of Warrior Script
  3. Historical Background
  4. Why SMALL Language Scripts?
  5. About the APOCALYX 3D Engine

Brief Description of the Game

Arena Plaza Maze

The game consists in a fight among teams (from 2 up to 4) of warriors (from 64 bots down to 1). The warriors move in a complex environment with walls that may be flat or include ramps, bridges and two or more floors. A warrior slides along the walls maintaining its movement attitude, but it suddenly stops when hits another warrior.

Wrokdam's HeadWarriors have a brain that consists in a CPU with a clock frequency of 10KHz and a RAM with a memory size of 32Kb. They are equipped with one gun that fires bullets and grenades. The number of bullets loaded at the beginning is 50 with a maximum of 100, while grenades are limited to a maximum load of 3 and initially the gun has only one of them, but recharges are provided on the battlefield, as well as barrels of bullets.

PowerupsEvery warrior has an initial amount of health, energy and armor. Health starts from the maximum, 100, and decreases when the warrior hits a bullet, 50 points per hit, or a grenade explodes nearby. In the latter case the health lost depends on the distance from the explosion up to 5 meters. When a warrior reach zero or less health, it is disabled. Energy starts from 50, while the maximum is 100. It decreases 2 units per second when the warrior runs, increases 1 unit per second when the warrior is standing or is crouched and keep its current value when the bot walks forward, or backward, or crouched. When the energy reaches zero, the warrior can't run, but can still walk. The Armor value starts from 0, while the maximum is 100. Armor gives protection from hits decreasing the damage proportionally to its value, but every hit reduces at the same time the armor value. Recharges for health (medikits), energy (food) and armor (full-metal jackets) are available on the battlefield. When a recharge is raised by a bot, it disappears from the battlefield but is respawned after a certain amount of time.

Wrokdam's TorsoWarriors may rotate their forward direction around their vertical axis, rotate and bend the torso up to specific values, rotate and bend the head up to specific values. The gun and its aim device are linked to the torso and follow its movement, while other sensors to watch and hear and the device to speak are linked to the head.

Among the others described in the documentation, some of the main functions available to warriors to interact with each other and with the environment are:

  • bool:say(int:word)
    it is used to communicate with the other bots. A warrior can "say" a word, that corresponds to an integer value, every half a second.
  • float:hear(&item,&sound,&float:yaw,&float:pitch,&float:id)
    useful to hear gun shots, grenade explosions or words spoken by nearby warriors. The nearest sound is reported with its type, distance and direction (yaw and pitch angles). Every "hear" takes 0.04 seconds.
  • float:sight()
    it is used to get the distance of the walls in the direction in front of the head. Every "sight" takes 0.01 seconds.
  • float:aim(&item)
    the same as sight(), but gets the distance of the walls in the direction of the gun or the distance of the nearest warrior between the gun and the wall using a sort of laser beam (the aim device). Every "aim" takes 0.04 seconds.
  • int:watch(&item,&float:dist,&float:yaw,&float:pitch,&float:id)
    useful to see the objects, not walls, around the warrior. Only the nearest object farther than a given distance is reported with its type, distance and direction. An object must be in front of the head within a characteristic angle of view (60 degrees or PI/3 radians) to be seen. Every "watch" takes 0.04 seconds.
GunA match lasts for a certain duration (from 1 minute up to 1 hour) and this and other values may be changed by the user. There are several condition for victory the first of which can be selected by the player. They apply in the following order:

The winner is the team that...

  1. a) "terminates the enemy chiefs", that are the warriors that carry the team sign. All the chiefs of the enemy teams must be disabled. Chiefs can't drop the sign so they are easily recognizable and their team mates must protect them, while they also try to hit enemies.
    b) "terminates the enemy teams". All the warriors of the enemy teams must be disabled to win. When this goal is active the chiefs hold a weapon and not a sign.
    c) "captures the enemy sign". The warriors of a single team must capture the sign of all the other teams to win, or alternatively disable all the enemies. The chiefs hold a sign at the beginning but can drop it to raise a weapon.

    ... or, if the timeout is reached, ...

  2. has more team mates at the end of the match
  3. has terminated more enemies at the end of the match
  4. has more overall health at the end of the match
  5. has more overall energy at the end of the match
If none of the above conditions matches, the match resolves in a draw.

The winning conditions described above apply to 3 different modes of play: Fight mode, Soccer mode and Race mode.

  1. Fight mode and its characteristics were already explained at the beginning of this section. Warriors hold a weapon so they can shoot bullets or grenades. Health, energy and the other warrior's properties change according to the rules cited above. This was the first mode of play implemented in GUN-TACTYX and the game includes 3 levels (arena, plaza and maze) that are tailored for fights.
  2. SoccerSoccer mode is a particular kind of play where warriors don't hold any weapon (but weapons may appear in the level and warriors may use them). When this mode is active, a ball appears in the middle of the level at the point of coordinate (0,0,0). Warriors can hit the ball simply moving towards it. When a warrior hits the ball with its bounding box, the simulator resolves the collision according to these rules:
    a) if the ball hits the warrior's torso, it simply bounces following the laws of elastic collisions, considering the normal vector that goes from the center of the warrior to the ball. The speed of the warrior is taken in account to compute the final speed of the ball.
    b) if the ball hits the warrior's legs, it bounces as above but also an additional "kick" velocity is added. The direction of that velocity is given on the horizontal plane by the normal vector that goes from the center of the warrior to the ball, while the vertical component is given by the inclination of the warrior's torso. If the torso points up with a certain angle, the "kick" velocity will acquire an initial angle that points up. The speed of the "kick" is selected by the warrior through the function setKickSpeed() and its default maximum value is 5 m/s. When a "kick" is performed, the ball bounces around losing a percentage of its speed equal to getGroundRestitution() after every collision with the geometry of the level, the restitution has a default value of 80%.
    The objective of every team of warriors is to send the ball in the goal area of enemy teams. The enemy area is located at the starting point of a team and is sphere shaped. A warrior can retrieve information about enemy goal areas through the function getGoalLocation(), with index 1, 2 or 3 as argument for the first, second and third enemy teams, and getGoalSize(), that returns a default value of 7.5 m for the diameter of the sphere. When the ball enters the goal area of a team, the warrior of that team nearest to the goal area is immediately disabled and the ball becomes a grenade that explodes in 3 seconds, while another ball suddenly appears in the middle of the field. The "kills" are assigned to the warrior that last touched the ball. Other behaviors of this mode are similar to the Fight mode, including the rules to find out the winner. This was the second mode of play implemented in GUN-TACTYX and the game includes only one level (field) that is tailored for Soccer matches.
  3. Race mode is another particular kind of play where warriors don't hold any weapon (but weapons may appear in the level and warriors may use them). When this mode is active, the objective of the warriors is to move around the origin (the point with all coordinate equal to zero) in the counter-clockwise direction (watching from the top) avoiding the obstacles of the level. When a warrior move in the wrong direction, it loses health, while moving in the right direction increases its health. A complete turn around the origin gives an overall amount of health equal to 100. When a warrior reaches 100 points of health, it does not increase its health any more but all the other warriors decrease their health of the lacking amount. Another rule that is different from the other modes of play is the following: When two warriors collide, the one with the lowest health is disabled. Other behaviors of this mode are similar to the Fight mode, including the rules to find out the winner. This was the third mode of play implemented in GUN-TACTYX and the game does not include yet any level tailored for Race matches or examples of tactics suitable for this modality in the sample scripts. A level for Race matches should provide an obstacle  in the middle around which the warriors must run: A possible choice already included in the game may be the maze level, but a more complex path, several obstacles and energy recharges make matches more interesting. 

To change mode or goal, enter the options panel, pressing '0' (zero) when the game shows the main panel, and change the corresponding entries according to your needs.

This is only a brief overview about the game. Read the documentation included in the game package for more details.
If you have any question, contact me at tetractys@users.sf.net.

Index


Example of Warrior Script

The warriors in the GUN-TACTYX arena are controlled by SMALL scripts. The interface to the surrounding environment is given by a schematic but realistic set of functions. The value assigned to some arguments and returned values are specific to the current implementation of the game and may change in future releases, but the API and its specifications are very likely fixed once for all. Returned values may also change when a player configure the arena using scripts.
A player compiles the source code of his bot (for example "rookie.sma") using the 's' command of the console built in the game - invoke it pressing the [F3] key - or using the command line program "sc.exe" stored in the "/bots" folder of the game. Type in a DOS window:

    sc rookie.sma

and you'll get the compiled file "rookie.amx". A sample of a simple script is the following:

/* "rookie.sma" - simple control code for a team of warriors */
#include "core" // include core functions
#include "math" // include math functions
#include "bots" // include bot specific functions
main() { // the main entry point of the script
  // defines a value to recognize enemy warriors
  new const ENEMY_WARRIOR = ITEM_WARRIOR | ITEM_ENEMY;
  // specifies a time limit to force a change in direction of the warrior
  new const float:MAX_TIME = 10.0 // note the "point" in the constant
  new float:lastTime = getTime()
  // loops forever (or better, until the bot dies)
  while(true) {
    new float:thisTime = getTime()
    if(thisTime-lastTime > MAX_TIME) {
      // changes direction at random every MAX_TIME seconds
      lastTime = thisTime
      new float:randAngle = float(random(21)-10)*1.5708
      rotate(getDirection()+randAngle)
    } else if(sight() < 5.0) {
      // if the warrior is within 5 meters from a wall,
      // change slightly its direction
      rotate(getDirection()+0.31415);
    } else {
      // give a look for the nearest enemy
      new item = ENEMY_WARRIOR;
      new float:dist = 0.0
      new float:yaw
      watch(item,dist,yaw)
      if(item == ENEMY_WARRIOR) {
        // Found one enemy!
        // Do you walk? Stop!
        if(isWalking()) stand();
        // Do you run? Walk!
        else if(isRunning()) walk();
        // Rotate towards enemy direction adding
        // the current direction (absolute) to the
        // enemy direction (relative to the head)
        rotate(getDirection()+yaw);
        // aim and see what is in front of the gun.
        new item
        aim(item)
        // It's an enemy, shoot!
        if(item & ENEMY_WARRIOR == ENEMY_WARRIOR)
          shootBullet()
      } else {
        // Can't find any enemy!
        // Do you walk? Run!
        if(isWalking())
          run();
        // Are you standing?
        else if(isStanding()) {
          // Maybe you collided into someone...
          if(getTouched() & ITEM_WARRIOR != 0)
            // if that is true, make a quarter turn...
            rotate(getDirection()+1.5708);
          else
            // ... otherwise walk.
            walk();
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
The script above makes use of a low number of the available functions. Other sample scripts are available in the "\bots" folder of the game. The complete list of the functions is available in the documentation included in the game package with some explanation that specifies also the parameters of the warriors and some characteristic of the environment in the current implementation.

Index


Historical Background

GUN-TACTYX (read it like gun tactics) is a "CROBOTS-like game with QUAKE3-style graphics". It belongs to the genre of Programming Games like Tom Poindexter's CROBOTS, and old 1985 DOS game, where some robots fight in an arena, firing missiles and avoiding enemies' projectiles. Such kind of games is involving, but it is not interactive, in fact the player must develop the AI algorithms of his own robot using a programming language and then can follow its fights against other robots, possibly written by other players.

JROBOTSA great deal of these kind of games is available for download on the internet, most of them for free. An online example is my JROBOTS and you can visit its site, twin site of GUN-TACTYX, hosted by SourceForge. JROBOTS is a clone of CROBOTS with interesting features. While a player of CROBOTS had to use a subset of C to program his robot (using only integer math because of the limitations of 1985 PCs), a player of JROBOTS uses the Java language and the robot consists of a single Java class (visit http//:www.javasoft.com for more details about the Java language). A player can upload the corresponding file to the on-line arena to compete in monthly tournaments against robots developed by other players. One of the most appealing characteristics of JROBOTS is the cooperative play, in fact, while the original CROBOTS had only one-against-all kind of matches, JROBOTS supports matches among team of robots, from doubles to four teams of eight robots each at a time.
During the past tournaments, since April 2000, a large number of interesting jrobots were uploaded online and they featured several different strategies that evolved with time. Some months ago (September 2003) the arena was split in two categories, veterans and cadets, and the major league is dominated by IonStorm, the strongest and more tuned jrobot ever seen in the arena, written by Alan Lund from Eau Claire, WI, USA.

Even if JROBOTS is a great game in its genre, it has some limitations. First of all, for security reasons the players can't use any of the Java APIs, because the tournaments run on-line in Java applets hosted by the browser of the visitors. The latter could be a feature of the game, just like the reduced size (20Kb) of the class file that contains the code of the robots and other rules of the same kind that makes the game more difficult for the players, but another issue menaced the reliability of the game since the early beginning.

Every robot loaded in the arena has a Java thread assigned that runs its code. The environment of the Java Virtual Machine doesn't provide any effective tool to control the execution of Java threads, so different CPUs, OSes and JVMs ran the simulation of the matches more or less differently favoring from time to time one or the other jrobot and invalidating the reliability of any testing phase conducted on a single machine. The problem was caused by the thread-based design of the game, rather than turn-based as other game of this kind are, and a solution was found thanks to some of the most effective JROBOTS players (Walter Nistic̣, author of another strong jrobot called KillerBees, in collaboration with the already cited Alan Lund). They developed a "Virtual Clock Generator" that ticks the time of the simulations and smoothes the behavior of different machines.

Anyway, since the beginning I wished to develop another game with the strongest points of JROBOTS, but at the same time graphically appealing, with an easy to control execution environment and a more realistic simulator. After a long list of failed attempts, the answer to my wishes seems to be GUN-TACTYX.

To get the complete history of JROBOTS and more recent news or to participate to the monthly on-line tournaments, visit its site at SourceForge (http://jrobots.sourceforge.net/).

Index


Why SMALL Language Scripts?

In GUN-TACTYX, the player must develop the AI algorithms of his team of bots using the SMALL scripting language. In the documentation included in the game package you can find a complete manual about the use of SMALL to create scripts that control the bots' behavior. The SMALL language is a powerful scripting language easily extendable and embeddable in other applications. We limit ourself to the features that are useful to create GUN-TACTYX scripts, but plenty of other possibilities are available. To know more about SMALL visit the site of ITB CompuPhase (http://www.compuphase.com).

A SMALL interpreter can run instruction by instruction the bytecode generated by a compiler and provides a fine control of the execution. It is very easy to execute the code for any amount of ticks of (virtual) CPU clock, suspend the execution starting the run of other code, resume it and simulate the heaviness (in clock ticks) of particular functions. As a consequence, all the bots of the game use the same amount of time to perform the same actions, saving the reliability of the simulation. Turn-based mechanisms, such as voluntary calls to functions that release the execution of the bot's code, are no more needed.

Another advantage of a SMALL interpreter is the memory management. Every bot has a fixed amount of memory to store all the information that it needs (stack and heap space). It is no more possible for a bot to use large sizes of the application memory, mining the reliability of the program itself.

The SMALL compiler ("sc.exe") translates sources written in a C-like language (".sma" extension) in a particular bytecode (".amx" extension). That kind of C-like language is very easy to learn for people who already knows Java, C, C++, C# or other programming languages, and may introduce inexperienced people to procedural programming. 

GUN-TACTYX includes a command-line console from which you can compile and execute (GUN-TACTYX unspecific) SMALL scripts. To activate the console, press the 'F3' key during the execution of the application. When a script is in execution, you can read all the messages generated on the console.

Index


About the APOCALYX 3D Engine

GUN-TACTYX is a game based on the APOCALYX Engine. The use of an OpenGL 3D engine increases the hardware requirements of the application, in fact an accelerated 3D graphic card is absolutely necessary to follow the fights, but at the same time makes the game more graphically appealing. The engine is compatible with a simplified version of the resources used by Quake III (MD3 models and BSP levels), that's why I say that GUN-TACTYX is a "CROBOTS-like game with QUAKE3-style graphics".

APOCALYX is a 3D engine in development based on OpenGL and other free libraries. Its sources are available under the GPL license at http://apocalyx.sf.net. The engine already includes basic features, such as lens flares, sky boxes, height field terrains, wavy surfaces, a scene graph, sprites and billboards, a particle system, 3D sound, compressed data management, loaders of several image formats, MD3 models loader and animator, BSP levels loader, a simple physics simulator, support for LUA and SMALL scripting languages and other more advanced characteristics are planned. The current implementation supports only Win98 (or higher) with an accelerated graphic card and OpenGL drivers installed.

I wish to thank all the people who helped in developing this engine. First of all, I must thank Matteo "Fuzz" Perenzoni and his Apocalypse demo written for the 2001 NeHe's Apocalypse Contest: The sources of his demo were the starting point that made possible to develop the APOCALYX renderer and many nice effects.

Then I must thank a good deal of great internet resources about game programming: News Portals, such as GameDev, FlipCode, CFXweb, Game Programming Italia and OpenGL.org, and Game Tutorials Sites, such as NeHe, Game Tutorials, SULACO and many others.

Finally, I wish to thank Grant Struthers and Janus for providing the models of the warrior and the weapon used in GUN-TACTYX. They resources are hosted by PolyCount.

To know more about APOCALYX, visit http://apocalyx.sourceforge.net.

APOCALYX 3D Engine

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